The USDA grade shields are highly regarded as symbols of safe, high-quality American beef. Quality grades are widely used as a "language" within the beef industry, making business transactions easier and providing a vital link to support rural America. Consumers, as well as those involved in the marketing of agricultural products, benefit from the greater efficiency permitted by the availability and application of grade standards.
Beef is evaluated by highly-skilled USDA meat graders using a subjective characteristic assessment process and electronic instruments to measure meat characteristics. These characteristics follow the official grade standards developed, maintained and interpreted by the USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service.
Beef is graded in two ways: quality grades for tenderness, juiciness and flavor; and yield grades for the amount of usable lean meat on the carcass. From a consumer standpoint, what do these quality beef grades mean?
Prime beef is produced from young, well-fed beef cattle. It has abundant marbling (the amount of fat interspersed with lean meat), and is generally sold in restaurants and hotels. Prime roasts and steaks are excellent for dry-heat cooking such as broiling, roasting or grilling.
Choice beef is high quality, but has less marbling than Prime. Choice roasts and steaks from the loin and rib will be very tender, juicy, and flavorful and are suited for dry-heat cooking. Many of the less tender cuts can also be cooked with dry heat if not overcooked. Such cuts will be most tender if braised, roasted or simmered with a small amount of liquid in a tightly covered pan.
Select beef is very uniform in quality and normally leaner than the higher grades. It is fairly tender, but, because it has less marbling, it may lack some of the juiciness and flavor of the higher grades. Only the tender cuts should be cooked with dry heat. Other cuts should be marinated before cooking or braised to obtain maximum tenderness and flavor.
Standard and Commercial grades of beef are frequently sold as ungraded or as store brand meat. Utility, Cutter, and Canner grades of beef are seldom, if ever, sold at retail but are used instead to make ground beef and processed products.
Recently, USDA collaborated with the United States Meat Export Federation and Colorado State University to develop an educational video about the beef grading process. This video provides a comprehensive overview of the beef grading system – from farm to table.
So next time you are at a restaurant or grocery store, look for the USDA grade shield and you will better be able to answer the question, “What’s your beef?”
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Is a standing rib roast , select, @ 4.54# for $20.00 a good price,?
Recently, I saw porterhouse and t-bone steak advertised at a local Food Lion as USDA choice; however, when at the store, the meat had no USDA shield. If advertised as choice, does FDA require that the meat be equally tagged?
Is all USA sourced Wagyu Beef USDA Prime by default?
@Leo R Elderkin - thank you for your comment. Just because the Wagyu is USA sourced, it is not intended by default as a Prime Grade. Wagyu carcasses that are being harvested and graded in the U.S. remain to be graded by our USDA Meat Graders. Each carcass is physically evaluated for the Quality Grade it represents and meets the criteria of the USDA Select, USDA Choice or USDA Prime Grades.
@Bettyjoe - thank you for your comment. USDA does not require individual packages of meat, or signs in front of the meat, to be labeled with the grade even though they come from USDA Choice. In the case you mention, it would be assumed all those packages in their store would have to be Choice steaks since they are not labeling them individually. They would be subject to a PL-272 violation if USDA conducted a review and all their loins were not from USDA Choice. Not having a designated grade label on the meat package is not a violation.
How would one find out the grade of a restaurant steak? A customer/guest cannot see this.
@Joe W Woods - thank you for your comment. The grade shield must be maintained through to the consumer for any grade claims to be made at the retail level. That meaning if a given beef cut is from a Choice graded carcass at the processing facility, the identity of the USDA grade must be maintained on the packaging and/or box labels to the retail location. The USDA grade being maintained to the retail level ensures the ability to be able to trace that graded product back to the original facility of grading by utilizing the FSIS Establishment number that is on all packaging leaving that facility. The customer at the restaurant relies on the advertised grade identified on the menu, discussion with restaurant staff or any proof that the restaurant wants to share with that customer.
AMS/QAD graders perform Public Law 272 reviews at retail locations to ensure that grade identity is maintained and advertised correctly. This is done by review of the meat holding cooler and reviewing invoices of meat purchased which shows the grade of product ordered to ensure a retail location is for example not purchasing USDA Choice but is advertising USDA Prime graded beef.
The Image cant be viewed with out logging into Flickr. This should be hosted on usda.gov or at least a fully public site. Also is there a comparison chart of normal beef vs Angus beef grading scale? These are the choices consumers are looking at when selecting meat.
@Luke - thank you for your comment. Also, thank you for letting us know about the Flickr link. We have removed it. Also, here is the answer to your comment below:
There are many options available to consumers when purchasing beef, and the USDA guide on grades helps explain the differences among USDA Select, Choice, and Prime – the three grades you see most often at the grocery store. “Angus” often appears as a claim on those products, along with many others that may not just relate to breed, but also to a wide variety of other processes like raising or handling claims. You can find additional information about those products on that company’s website.
Where do we get some not so tuff. Steaks ?
I'm a grader at a slaughter house and I'm not a USDA employee but I do have to go through all the same test as the government employees do. I guarantee the quality of the beef I grade in my plant is up to par with the government.... with that said... what ever sticker your local butcher puts on.. I guarantee he ups it just for a higher price.
WHAT IF YOU SUSPECT A SUPERMARKET MIGHT BE LABELING BEEF GRADES INCORRECTLY? LIKE A CHOICE CUT FOR PRIME. THE MARBLING FOR BOTH LOOKS EXACTLY THE SAME.
@Anonymous - thank you for your comment. USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service conducts reviews in processing plants, retail stores and restaurants to ensure accurate labeling of USDA graded meat products. If there is a customer complaint, please provide the store name and address to the point of contacts listed below and we will conduct a review of the location to ensure USDA grade labels are being utilized correctly.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service
Livestock & Poultry Program
Quality Assessment Division
Grading Services Branch
Dana Stahl, Chief
1400 Independence Ave SW
Washington, DC 20250
You can also contact:
USDA/Food Safety and Inspection Service
Office of Policy and Program Development
Labeling and Program Delivery Staff
Does USDA or the health department have some sort of yearly “list” or PDF document of the grades for each restaurant, like TACOBELL - GRADE D or what ever they got this year. Etc.
I thought it was strange that sometimes I would get prime rib at a restaurant and it is tough and gristly, others it is tender. I recently found out that "Prime Rib" is a cut of meat, not the USDA grade. Restaurants don't tell you what grade of beef they use for prime rib.