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Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Forest Ecosystems: A Comprehensive Science Synthesis for the U.S. Forest Sector

The ability of forests to provide essential services, such as clean drinking water, outdoor recreation, and quality wildlife habitat, will change, especially as populations grow and demands for these services increase. 
The most rapidly visible and significant short-term effects on forest ecosystems will be caused by fire, insects, invasive species, and combinations of multiple stressors, often occurring with increased frequency and severity. Although some regions will be affected more than others, these disturbances are likely to change the structure and function of ecosystems across millions of acres over a short period of time with detrimental effects on forest resources. 

Note: For copies of the figures contained in this document, contact Susan Carter at or 202-720-5447.


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Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States: Effects and Adaptation