Animal and Plant Health
Q: Is USDA still able to protect U.S. agriculture from animal and plant pests and diseases?
A: Yes. Like all Government Agencies, our top priority is the safety and health of our employees and customers. At the same time, we understand our customers rely on our services and that they are important for business continuity. In the days and weeks ahead, our goal is to balance safety with service, and we will make adjustments as needed in order to adapt and continue to accomplish our mission of protecting the health and value of America’s agriculture and natural resources.
Q: Can customers and the public still access USDA APHIS buildings for service?
A: As a precaution, most USDA facilities are closed to the public, but we do still have employees working at ports of entry among other locations. In addition, some locations remain open for endorsement activities to help facilitate trade and international pet travel. This is on a case-by-case basis, and we encourage you to check with your local APHIS contacts for more information. They can assist you in identifying alternate ways to conduct business if in-person engagement is not an option.
Q: Will APHIS continue to carry out existing pest and disease emergency response programs, such as cattle fever tick and spotted lanternfly?
A: APHIS will continue to carry out on-the-ground eradication and management activities where we have active pest and disease programs. This is a core component of our mission and we work in close coordination with states and industry to address pest and disease outbreaks that threaten American agriculture. However, employees will take necessary precautions to minimize face-to-face interactions with producers or the public, while carrying out these activities. We will also have policy staff working remotely to support on-the-ground activities.
Q: What if a new pest or disease threat is detected?
A: APHIS’ mission is protecting the health and value of America’s agriculture and natural resources, and it’s vital that we continue to respond to agricultural emergencies in coordination with state and industry partners.
Q: How is APHIS assisting importers and exporters who need the signature of an Agency official on trade documents such as phytosanitary certificates and health certificates?
A: APHIS understands the importance of facilitating trade and will continue to provide services to complete required paperwork to support the import and export of live animals and plants and animal products. To support social distancing and protect the health and safety of our employees, whenever possible, APHIS will seek to process these documents electronically. For more information about what services are available in your local area, please see the following resources:
Animals and Animal Products:
- For animal product imports, email firstname.lastname@example.org or call 301-851-3300 option 4
- For live animal imports, email email@example.com or call 301-851-3300 option 2
- For live animal or animal product exports, please contact your local export service center
Plants and Plant Products:
- For import questions, email: firstname.lastname@example.org or call 1-877-770-5990
- For export questions, locate your export certification specialist here or call 301-851-2309
Q: Will APHIS continue to conduct inspections of livestock at the border?
A: APHIS understands the importance of facilitating trade and continues to have staff at the border to inspect livestock. Personnel at these facilities will take care to utilize all recommended social distancing precautions to ensure their health and safety while carrying out these functions.
Q: Will APHIS have staff working at Plant Inspection Stations?
A: APHIS understands the importance of facilitating trade at our plant inspection stations. These facilities will remain open to provide inspection services for plants arriving into the United States. Personnel at these facilities will take care to utilize all recommended social distancing precautions to ensure their health and safety. They will also be using additional personal protective equipment such as gloves and sanitizers while still conducting essential inspections. If a pest is identified and treatments are necessary to clear a commodity into American commerce, staff will be able to oversee these operations to ensure clearance in a timely fashion.
Q: Will APHIS employees continue to work at military airbases and civilian airports to prevent wildlife strikes and safeguard the flying public?
A: APHIS will continue to have wildlife specialists and biologists at these locations to protect members of our military and the flying public by dispersing birds and other wildlife from runways and flight paths. This work is largely conducted remotely in the field, and employees are safely able to carry out this essential duty with little interaction with the public or customers.
Q: Is APHIS still conducting Animal Welfare Act inspections?
A: APHIS is continuing to conduct regular inspections where local area and individual premises conditions allow our inspectors to maintain social distancing norms. APHIS will always place the highest priority on investigating reports of extreme Animal Welfare Act (AWA) violations that could lead to the confiscation of animals. However, if a state or locality has issued a shelter-in-place order, inspectors will honor that order and not conduct in-person inspections until the order is lifted. During the pandemic, APHIS has made more than 18,000 virtual contacts through phone, email, and video conferencing to AWA licensees and registrants to monitor compliance remotely.
Q: Will APHIS continue to conduct compliance inspections for field trials of materials developed using genetic engineering?
A: Yes, APHIS continues to conduct inspections of field trials using geographic information systems (GIS) visualizations, remote sensing imagery, person-to-person interviews, and real-time remote visual observation of field activities. APHIS will resume in-person inspections when pandemic-related recommendations allow for routine travel. APHIS is prepared to respond to any incidents involving potential noncompliance with regulated activities, including field trials, and movement/importation of regulated materials developed using genetic engineering. For questions about our compliance and inspection process and requirements; to report a compliance incident; or to submit a required report associated with a permit or notification, send an e-mail to: email@example.com.
Q: Will APHIS continue to work with the Department of Homeland Security to continue operations at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center and ensure the smooth transition of the National Bio- and Agro Defense (NBAF) Facility to USDA?
A: The Plum Island Animal Disease Center continues to be operational to support testing for high consequence livestock diseases. APHIS, in coordination with USDA’s Agricultural Research Service and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), also continues to work on the transition of this facility from Plum Island, New York to Manhattan, Kansas. In April 2020, the DHS Science & Technology Directorate announced at least a two-and-a-half month delay in the construction of NBAF due to the impacts of COVID-19 on labor and material availability. Due to uncertainties around the forecast, revised milestone dates have not been established.
Q: Will APHIS continue to provide laboratory support and disease confirmatory testing to other laboratories, state animal health officials, federal agencies and producers?
A: APHIS is continuing to provide these important functions while prioritizing foreign and emerging animal disease testing and testing to protect public health and the agriculture economy.
Q: Will APHIS continue to respond to active predator threats impacting agriculture, natural resources or human health and safety?
A: APHIS will continue to conduct predator management activities across the country to protect livestock (including during the spring lambing and calving season), threatened and endangered wildlife, and human health and safety. This work, including aerial operations, is performed in the field with infrequent interaction with customers or the public, and thereby presents minimal risk of exposure to employees. WS will continue to talk with producers, with some accommodations, to reduce any potential risks.
Q: Will APHIS continue to carry out its National Feral Swine Damage Management program?
A: APHIS will continue to have specialists in the field to prevent damage caused by feral swine. This work is largely conducted remotely in the field, and employees are safely able to carry out this essential duty with little interaction with the public or customers. It is critical that we continue program activities so that we don’t lose ground in our on-going management and elimination programs.
Q: Will APHIS continue to review license/permit submissions for veterinary biologics, complete biological products licensing actions, and ensure compliance with the Federal Virus Serum Toxin Act?
A: APHIS will continue to carry out these important functions to ensure producers have access to safe and efficacious veterinary biologics to keep their herds and flocks healthy. APHIS will also ensure that biologics manufacturing facilities, and the products they produce, continue to meet requirements set forth in the Virus Serum Toxin Act. APHIS continues to evaluate license/permit applications, testing products and product components, while also conducting inspections/investigations as necessary.
Q: Will APHIS continue to ensure compliance of facilities handling select agents to ensure proper storage and maintenance?
A: At this time, APHIS’ Agriculture Select Agent Services (AgSAS) will not be conducting routine inspections. We do have the ability to extend registration validity to ensure that all facilities are authorized to possess, use or transfer select agents. Should a compliance issue arise, we have the ability to conduct the necessary follow up, including an inspection.
Q: Are there restrictions for imported commodities as a result of COVID-19?
A: There may be import requirements for certain commodities that contain animal-derived materials. APHIS has posted guidance for the import of these commodities here: www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/downloads/import/covid-19-info.pdf (PDF, 158 KB). APHIS will work directly with importers to expedite the process.
Q: What will happen if animals are shipped to a slaughter establishment that closes due to local restrictions or staffing shortages?
A: FSIS front-line supervisors and district managers are working closely with slaughter establishments to ensure adequate staffing of FSIS inspection personnel in support of continued plant operations. Prior to arrival at a slaughter establishment, livestock fall under the jurisdiction of local government with APHIS providing assistance as warranted. In the event of a plant closure, APHIS field staff would coordinate with state and regional plant staff to determine how and where to divert animals.
Q: Should I avoid contact with pets or other animals if I am sick from coronavirus (COVID-19)?
A: Treat pets as you would other human family members to protect them from a possible infection. It’s always a good idea to practice healthy habits around pets and other animals, such as washing your hands and maintaining good hygiene.
Because there is a risk that people with COVID-19 could spread the virus to animals, CDC recommends that pet owners limit their pet’s interaction with people outside their household.
- Keep cats indoors when possible and do not let them roam freely outside.
- Walk dogs on a leash at least 6 feet (2 meters) away from others.
- Avoid public places where a large number of people gather.
- Do not put a mask on pets. Masks could harm your pet.
There is no evidence that the virus can spread to people from the skin, fur, or hair of pets. Do not wipe or bathe your pet with chemical disinfectants, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or other products, such as hand sanitizer, counter-cleaning wipes, or other industrial or surface cleaners. Talk to your veterinarian if you have questions about appropriate products for bathing or cleaning your pet.
Talk to your veterinarian if your pet gets sick or if you have any concerns about your pet’s health.
Q: Can I get COVID-19 from my pet or other animals?
A: Based on the limited information available to date, the risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people is considered to be low. The virus that causes COVID-19 spreads mainly from person to person through respiratory droplets from coughing, sneezing, and talking.
Pets have other types of coronaviruses that can make them sick, like canine and feline coronaviruses. These other coronaviruses cannot infect people and are not related to the current COVID-19 outbreak.
However, since animals can spread other diseases to people, it’s always a good idea to practice healthy habits around pets and other animals, such as washing your hands and maintaining good hygiene. For more information on the many benefits of pet ownership, as well as staying safe and healthy around animals including pets, livestock, and wildlife, visit CDC’s Healthy Pets, Healthy People website.
Q: Can animals get the this coronavirus?
A: To date, few animals worldwide have been reported to be infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 in people, and most have been in animals that had close contact with a person with COVID-19.
We are still learning about this virus, but we know that it is zoonotic and it appears that it can spread from people to animals in some situations. Further studies are needed to understand if and how different animals are affected by SARS-CoV-2.
USDA is working with CDC and other human and animal health partners to monitor this situation and will continue to provide updates as information becomes available. Confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 in animals are updated weekly and are posted at www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/sa_one_health/sars-cov-2-animals-us.
Q: Will animals be tested for coronavirus?
A: This is an evolving situation, however, CDC and USDA do not recommend routine testing of animals for this virus at this time.
Public health and animal health officials may decide to test certain animals that are showing signs and that are known to have been exposed to the virus. The decision to test will be made collaboratively between local, state or federal public health and animal health officials. The guidance is available online at: www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/animal-testing.html.
Q: Who will collect the samples from animals?
A: After the decision is made to test, the state animal health officials will identify the appropriate person to collect the sample using appropriate personal protective equipment and sample collection methods (PDF, 9.5 MB).
State animal health laboratories can conduct animal testing, but any positive samples would need to be confirmed through additional testing by USDA’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL).
Performing animal testing should not reduce the availability of tests for people. Testing performed on animals may be based on the published tests used in people, however, reagents are available that are not required for testing people. The NVSL and National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN) laboratories are using reagents for testing animals that are not required for testing in people.
Q: What should I do if I think my animal has this coronavirus?
A: Consult your veterinarian with any questions about your animal’s health. Make sure to tell your veterinarian if your animal was exposed to the virus that causes COVID-19, and if your animal is showing any signs of illness. Call ahead and arrange the veterinary hospital or clinic visit.
If you are sick with COVID-19 and your pet becomes sick, do not take your pet to the veterinary clinic yourself. Call your veterinarian and let them know you have been sick with COVID-19. Some veterinarians may offer telemedicine consultations or other alternate plans for seeing sick pets. Your veterinarian can evaluate your pet and determine the next steps for your pet’s treatment and care. Veterinarians who believe an animal should be tested will contact state animal health officials, who will work with public and animal health authorities to decide whether samples should be collected and tested.
Members of the public or licensed rehabilitators should contact the state wildlife agency about potential cases in wildlife that may warrant testing. The state wildlife agency will consult with the state public health and animal health officials for a decision on whether testing should proceed.
Q: Can I test my animal through a private laboratory?
A: We recommend working through your local, state or federal public health and animal health officials to determine whether testing is appropriate.
USDA is aware of private laboratories that are offering SARS-CoV-2 tests for pet owners. If these labs find positive samples, they would need to be confirmed through additional testing by USDA’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories for confirmatory testing.
In accordance with international reporting guidelines, collecting additional samples and background information may be required to complete confirmatory testing of cases from private laboratories.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the best source for information about COVID-19 in people and risks to animals. CDC information about COVID-19 in animals may be found at www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/animals.html.
There are several additional resources for information about this virus in animals: